P Scale, consists of 20 items that measure five impulsivity traits 4 items each , namely, negative urgency items 4, 7, 12 and 17 , lack of premeditation items 1, 6, 13 and 19 , lack of perseverance items 5, 8, 11 and 16 , sensation seeking items 3, 9, 14 and 18 and positive urgency items 2, 10, 15 and 20 Appendix I. P, we selected the 20 items of the Spanish original 59?? The items are scored on a four?? Spanish version of the emotion regulation questionnaire ERQ.
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The emotion regulation questionnaire 27,28 measures two key aspects of active emotion regulation strategies, namely, suppression i. Suppression can be considered a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy, whereas reappraisal is a more adaptive emotion regulation strategy The questionnaire is composed of ten items 5 per dimension scored on a 7?? For the purpose of this study, we used the Spanish translation of the ERQ validated by Cabello et al P, we undertook CFAs with maximum likelihood estimation with robust standard errors We used CFA instead of exploratory factor analysis because the former allows testing specific a priori hypotheses regarding the factorial structure of the scale, which is particularly suited for translations of scales having received prior validations.
In the current study, three models that consider the relationships among the five components of impulsivity were computed.
The first model holds that there is a single, unitary impulsivity construct. The second model identifies five inter?? Indeed, prior studies conducted with the UPPS?? P has shown that the solution that best fits the data consists of five specific but inter?? P found very high correlations, on the one hand, between lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance and, on the other hand, between positive and negative urgency 30,6.
Therefore, an additional model including three inter?? In this model, positive and negative items were pooled together, as well as lack of premeditation and perseverance items..
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The combination of these two indices is valuable because the RMSEA is sensitive to the misspecification of the factor loadings, and the SRMR is sensitive to the misspecification of the factor covariances. An SRMR between 0 and 0. P, age, and the other self?? Pearson's point?? Pairwise treatment of missing data was used..
Of the participants, 5 had one or more items missing after completion of the scale and were removed from the analyses.
Three models differing in the way they consider the relationships between the five components of impulsivity were tested. Absolute fit indices of the three models tested are summarized in table 1. First, the results showed that the single?? Therefore, our data confirm that impulsivity is not a unitary construct.
Third, the three?? Mean, standard deviations, internal consistency coefficient Cronbach's alpha , and correlations between the various components of the short Spanish UPPS?? P and other variables are reported in table 2. The Cronbach alpha ranged from 0. Correlations between the short UPPS?? P and the other measures. Table 2 describes the correlations between the various impulsivity facets with gender, age and emotion regulation strategies.
No significant linkage was found between gender and the impulsivity subscales. Age was found to negatively correlate with all facets of impulsivity except negative urgency, meaning that older participants tend to be less impulsive in almost all traits measured by the UPPS?? Regarding the dimensions of ERQ, cognitive reappraisal is only significantly associated with sensation seeking, whereas emotion suppression is negatively related to negative urgency and positively to sensation seeking..
This study examined the psychometric properties of a short version of the Spanish adaptation of the UPPS?? P impulsivity scale developed by Lynam et al 5. Results showed that the short version of the UPPS?? P scale holds a solid theory?? The CFA analysis indicated that the best?? P made by Billieux et al 1 , which is composed of the identical items we used in the current study.
In addition, the short version of the UPPS scale showed appropriate internal consistency.. The major finding of the study was the confirmation of the UPPS model factor structure, consisting of five separate but inter??
This structure has obtained both theoretical and empirical support, and in fact the different dimensions are specifically associated with a number of psychopathologies e. Nonetheless, it is also frequent that different dimensions contribute to explain a single disorder. For example, in the case of problem gambling, it has been shown that adverse consequences resulting from gambling e.
These findings illustrate how the psychometric evidence of five separate inter?? One of the main motivations for developing a short version of the original UPPS?? S scale original is to shorten the time necessary to complete the scale without altering the psychometric properties of the original scale. P short scale developed here has a factor structure similar to that obtained in the original UPPS 4,23 , as well as with its French original and short versions 1, This implies that our results support the use of the short UPPS?? P for meaningful time?? This time reduction makes the use of the UPPS??
P scale in everyday clinical practice much easier and practical, considering that professionals often have limited time schedules and a considerable load of patients. In view of the translational potential of the UPPS?? P scale, its incorporation into clinical practice may benefit adequate case management and better identification of mediating or risk factors for poorer prognosis. For example, there is evidence of the usefulness of the scale to predict a range of clinical surrogate and outcome variables, such as intensity of cigarette cravings 8 , risk of problem drinking 4 , risk of intimate partner violence 13 or the response to pharmacological treatment in pathological gamblers In terms of external validity, specific associations were identified between impulsivity facets and emotion regulation strategies.
First, results showed that participants with a high level of sensation seeking tend to use adaptive emotional regulation strategies reappraisal more frequently than dysfunctional regulation ones suppression. Interestingly, Cabello et al 28 found similar relationships between emotion regulation strategies and extraversion, a personality trait that, in turn, correlates with sensation seeking Although the specific psychological processes underlying these relationships remain to be elucidated, our results support the view that a high level of sensation seeking is not per se problematic, in contrast to the other facets of impulsivity.
Second, we found that participants with a high level of negative urgency reported a lower tendency to suppress their emotions.
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