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Ihr literarisches und publizistisches Werk. Page Sutton-Verlag: Erfurt, Bernhard Poloni ed. Volk, Reich und Nation. Stuttgart, Richard Wagners Leben und Wirken. External links. The Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed in In addition to stimulating German nationalism, the war had a major impact in mobilizing a civic spirit in numerous volunteer activities. Many volunteer militi. The largest territory of the empire after was the Kingdom of Germany , though it came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia , the Kingdom of Burgundy , the Kingdom of Italy , numerous other territories.
On 25 December , Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe , more than three centuries after the fall of the earlier ancient Western Roman Empire in ; the title continued in the Carolingian family until and from to , after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar I , in The title was revived again in when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries.
Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role; the exact term "Holy Roman Empire" was not used until the 13th century, but the concept of translatio imperii , the notion that he—the sovereign ruler—held supreme power inherited from the ancient emperors of Rome , was fundamental to the prestige of the emperor.
The office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although controlled by dynasties; the German prince-electors , the highest-ranking noblemen of the empire elected one of their peers as " King of the Romans ", he would be crowned emperor by the Pope.
The empire never achieved the extent of political unification as was formed to the west in France , evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units: kingdoms, duchies, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities , other domains. The power of the emperor was limited, while the various princes, lords and cities of the empire were vassals who owed the emperor their allegiance, they possessed an extent of privileges that gave them de facto independence within their territories.
Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August following the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by emperor Napoleon I the month before. Before , the realm was referred to as the Roman Empire ; the term sacrum in connection with the medieval Roman Empire was used beginning in under Frederick I Barbarossa : the term was added to reflect Frederick's ambition to dominate Italy and the Papacy.
The form "Holy Roman Empire" is attested from onward. In a decree following the Diet of Cologne , the name was changed to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, a form first used in a document in The new title was adopted because the Empire had lost most of its Italian and Burgundian territories to the south and west by the late 15th century, but to emphasize the new importance of the German Imperial Estates in ruling the Empire due to the Imperial Reform.
By the end of the 18th century, the term "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" had fallen out of official use.
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Besides, contradicting the traditional view concerning that designation, Hermann Weisert has stated in a study on imperial titulature that, despite the claim of many textbooks, the name " Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" never had an official status and points out that documents were thirty times as to omit the national suffix as include it.
In a famous assessment of the name, the political philosopher Voltaire remarked sardonically: "This body, called and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire. As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control. In the late 5th and early 6th centuries, the Merovingians , under Clovis I and his successors, consolidated Frankish tribes and extended hegemony over others to gain control of northern Gaul and the middle Rhine river valley region.
By the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, the Carolingians , led by Charles Martel , had become the de facto rulers.
In , Martel's son Pepin became King of the Franks , gained the sanction of the Pope; the Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In , Pepin's son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an extensive expansion of the realm, he incorporated the territories of present-day France, northern Italy , beyond, linking the Frankish kingdom with Papal lands. From his youth, he was attached to the royal court and held the office of Chamberlain to Queen Sofia of Bavaria , he fought in the Battle of Grunwald.
He played a prominent role in the civil wars in Bohemia during the reign of Wenceslas IV. In addition to training and equipping his army according to their abilities, he used armored wagons armed with small cannons and muskets, presaging the tank of five hundred years later, he was a master at using geography to its full advantage as well as managing the discipline of his troops.
The effectiveness of field artillery against the royal cavalry in the battle turned field artillery into a firm part of Hussite armies.
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His accomplishments in this regard are unique and noteworthy as he had to train peasants to face trained and armored opponents who severely outnumbered his own troops, for this, some have considered him to be the greatest general in history. Most of the Teutonic Knights' leadership were taken prisoner. The Knights never recovered their former power and the financial burden of war reparations caused internal conflicts and an economic downturn in their lands; the battle shifted the balance of power in Eastern Europe.
On November 13, a temporary armistice was concluded between the partisans of King Sigismund , the last Emperor of the House of Luxemburg and the citizens of Prague. The ecclesiastical organization of Tabor had a somewhat puritanical character with a strict military discipline being instituted though the government was established on a democratic basis. When the Hussite army faced a numerically superior opponent they prepared carts for the battle by forming them into squares or circles; the carts were joined wheel to wheel by chains and positioned aslant, with their corners attached to each other, so that horses could be harnessed to them if necessary.
In front of this wall of carts a ditch was dug by camp followers; the crew of each cart consisted of 16—22 soldiers: 4—8 crossbowmen, 2 handgunners , 6—8 soldiers equipped with pikes or flails , 2 shield carriers and 2 drivers. The Hussites ' battle consisted of two stages, the first defensive, the second an offensive counterattack.
In the first stage the army placed the carts near the enemy army and by means of artillery fire provoked the enemy into battle. The artillery would inflict heavy casualties at close range. In order to avoid more losses, the enemy knights attacked; the infantry hidden behind the carts used firearms and crossbows to ward off the attack, weakening the enemy.
The shooters aimed first at the horses. Many of the knights died as they fell; as soon as the enemy's morale was lowered, the second stage, an offensive counterattack, began. The infantry and the cavalry burst out from behind the carts striking violently at the enemy from the flanks. While fighting on the flanks and being shelled from the carts the enemy was not able to put up much resistance, they were forced to withdraw, leaving behind dismounted knights in heavy armor who were unable to escape the battlefield.
From their uniform, they were known as the "Black Troopers" or "Black Riflemen". At Kitzen the whole corps, warned too late of the armistice of Poischwitz , was caught on the French side of the line of demarcation, and, as a fighting force, annihilated. After the peace of the corps was dissolved, the infantry becoming the 25th Regiment, the cavalry the 6th Uhlans.
Made colonel in that year, his subsequent promotions were: major-general , lieutenant-general Gilman, D.
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New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. Cambridge University Press. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Rines, George Edwin, ed.. Encyclopedia Americana. Lohengrin opera Lohengrin , WWV 75, is a Romantic opera in three acts composed and written by Richard Wagner , first performed in The story of the eponymous character is taken from medieval German romance , notably the Parzival of Wolfram von Eschenbach and its sequel, written by a different author, itself inspired by the epic of Garin le Loherain, it is part of the Knight of the Swan tradition.
The opera has inspired other works of art.
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King Ludwig II of Bavaria named his fairy-tale castle Neuschwanstein , after the Swan Knight , it was King Ludwig's patronage that gave Wagner the means and opportunity to compose, build a theatre for, stage his epic cycle The Ring of the Nibelung. The most popular and recognizable part of the opera is the Bridal Chorus , better known as " Here Comes the Bride " played as a processional at weddings in the West; the orchestral preludes to Acts I and III are frequently performed separately as concert pieces.
The literary figure of Lohengrin first appeared as a supporting character in the final chapter of the medieval epic poem Parzival of Wolfram von Eschenbach. His protection comes under the condition.
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If she violates this requirement, he will be forced to leave her. Wagner took up these characters and set the "forbidden question" theme at the core of a story which makes contrasts between the godly and the mundane, between Early Middle Age Christendom and Germanic paganism. Wagner attempted at the same time to weave elements of Greek tragedy into the plot, he wrote the following in Mitteilungen an meine Freunde about his Lohengrin plans:Who doesn't know " Zeus and Semele? The lover finds that she cannot recognize the god in this form, demands that he should make the real sensual form of his being known.
Zeus knows, he suffers in this awareness, suffers knowing that he must fulfill this demand and in doing so ruin their love. He will seal his own doom. Is the man who craves for God not destroyed? The pain of his head wound had become very severe.
It was in this position that he composed the sonnet "Abschied vom Leben" Farewell to Life , of which the following is a translation:. Written in the night of the 17th and 18 June, as I lay, severely wounded and helpless in a wood, expecting to die. During the night he heard the enemy searching the forest near him, but afterwards fell asleep, and was saved in the morning by two peasants. He had been in pursuit of a group of the enemy, when the riflemen, who had found a rallying-place in some under-wood, sent forth a shower of balls upon their pursuers.
He was carried to a neighbouring wood, but could not be revived. A tomb has since been placed over his remains, and enclosed by a wall. His Poetischer Nachlass were edited by his father and published at Leipzig in According to J. Miller quotes a poem  by " Mrs. Hemans " about their mutual devotion. His first volume of poems was published under the title of Knospen Buds, His complete works were published by the direction of his mother, and edited by Streckfuss 1 vol. Richardson, appeared in London in Abschied vom Leben A literal translation from the German My wounds burn, my pale lips quiver.
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